Amanda Roberts published an article titled “Chinese Americans vs. American-born Chinese” in theNanfang.com where she begins with the claim:
If you’ve never been to China, you probably haven’t heard the term “American-Born Chinese.” It is a uniquely Chinese phrase used to identify people who live in China of Chinese ethnicity but were born abroad, often truncated as ABC (or BBC for British-born Chinese or CBC for Canadian-born Chinese, and so on).
Okay, Amanda Roberts…We clearly haven’t lived in the same parts of America.
Let’s start by what I agree with: yes, American-born Chinese are labeled ABC, Canadian-born Chinese CBC, etc. The semantics of Chinese American and American-born Chinese (hereafter, ABC) do indeed have different connotations. However. I cannot agree that in America, “it doesn’t matter what your race is or where you are from“. If anything, I would argue the opposite.
American-born Chinese vs. Fobs
The term ABC is used in the States by first generation Chinese-Americans and ABCs alike. It is not a “uniquely Chinese phrase“, as demonstrated by related phrases used by other ethnic subgroups, such as American-born Koreans (ABK), American-born Vietnamese (ABV).
What is the purpose of this term in America? Well, it is used to identify “native Americans” versus “naturalized Americans” (also known as immigrants). The ABC community would call them fobs, which stands for “fresh off the boat”. There’s a book and a whole TV series about this Chinese-American fob phenomenon, by the way (hint: it’s titled “Fresh off the Boat”).
Because of othering
If you’re part of the dominant culture (or you’re just white), let me break it down to a simple explanation:
In any society, there is a phenomenon called “othering“, which is when we create divides between us and “them”. “They” can be people of color, immigrants, the disabled, little people, fat people…and the list goes on! Anyone different than you and the community you identify with can be your “other”.
To “other” is associated with pride in your own group, dislike for another group, and social hierarchy. Basically, you can only other people you believe are lower in the social hierarchy.
Stereotypically, Asian-Americans are othered by Caucasian Americans as an ethnic minority group. Asian-Americans will other Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Pacific Islanders, Indians (India is part of Asia), and even Southeast Asians.
Within the “AZN Pride” Asian American community, there are further divides between the different ethnic groups (Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese, Philippine). There are even sub-divisions within the Chinese American group, such as Taiwan-ABC and Hong Kong-ABC (consider that the first Chinese Americans were from Guangzhou).
Then, there is othering within the country+ethnic group where second-third-fourth generation Chinese Americans will differentiate themselves from new immigrants, fobs.
Fobs at the bottom of the pyramid
Fobs are stereotypically thought of as having non-native English abilities, to only speak their own language at home (not English), and to prefer the culture of their home country, such as the foods, music, movies, games, or even tv series. Fobs can graduate from their fob status by shedding their fobbish habits and preferences and adopting American culture, but it is unlikely that they will ever reach ABC status. Instead, ex-fobs might be called “half ABCs” if they immigrated in their teens or “near ABCs” if they immigrated at a younger age.
In summary, ABCs take pride that they were born and raised in the States and feel that they are thereby more American than fobs.
Back to the semantics
Whle it is true that in the term “American-born Chinese”, American-born is the adjective describing Chinese (noun), and in Chinese American, “Chinese” is the adjective describing American (noun), I don’t agree that the nouns are emphasized. I believe the hyphenations used by multiple ethnic groups proves that racial othering is commonplace in America, and the label, ABC vs. FOB, is a product of said othering culture. Think about it: if we Americans truly didn’t care about race, we wouldn’t need any hyphenations!
China, on the other hand, is a country with little racial diversity and a dominant Han Chinese culture, so they don’t have anything to hyphenate. If anything, ethnic minorities downplay their heritage to fit into the dominant culture.
Roberts is correct in stating that Chinese, due to their heavy emphasis on ancestry, believe essentially that once born Chinese, always Chinese. China has even created terms like “overseas Chinese” and a corresponding visa category to welcome “returnees” back at any time. The US is an immigrant nation, so of course they wouldn’t have a similar outlook. However, it can still be argued that Americans emphasize their heritage and ancestry (ethnicity and race) just as much as the Chinese, albeit in each respective subculture.